The Island of Negros is the second largest in the Visayas, after Panay. The natives of old called it BUGLAS, after the tall reeds predominant on the island. In 1527 Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, anchored in Bohol, sent an expedition to explore the neighboring landmass that was BUGLAS. The crew returned with reports of dark-skinned natives on the island, and so it was thereafter referred to as NEGROS.
The Augustinians began Christianization of Negros Island in 1572. Tanjay was constituted as the first parish on the southeastern coast in 1580. The Jesuits arrived in Tanjay in 1600, but spiritual and military governing seats remained in Panay for western Negros, and in Cebu for the eastern settlements.
In 1734, Negros was made a corregimento with Ilog as capital. Spiritual administration of Negros was taken over by the Dominicans in 1768.
In 1795 Negros was made an alcaldia and the capital was moved to Himamaylan.
In 1848 spiritual administration was assumed by the Recollects. Less than three years later, sugar cane began to transform Negros into the most productive island in the archipelago.
In 1856, Negros was elevated into a politico-militar province with Bacolod as capital and Don Emilio Saravia y Nuñez as First Gobernador Politico-Militar.
For almost 400 years NEGROS was administered as one province by the Spanish despite the various settlements being at great distance from one another. Travel was by horseback or on foot. It took days, rivers and mountains and jungles had to be traversed to reach the major poblacions.
About 1876, 13 Recollects who administered the parishes and misions petitioned Spain to divide the island to make spiritual and political administration more convenient. In 1890, barely eight years before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, Governor General Valeriano Weyler, acting on a Royal Decree, created the Provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental.
To the now separate political unit of Negros Oriental, Siquijor Island was attached, and Dumaguete was assigned as capital. Don Joaquin Tavera was appointed First Gobernador Politico-Militar.
In February 1891, construction of the retreat house of the Recollects in Lazi, Siquijor Island, was completed. It was considered the biggest in the Philippines.
In 1896, the Philippine Revolution against Spain broke out. Pangaleon Villegas of Bacong enlisted with the Katipunan in Cebu. The following year, he led a successful attack on the Spanish garrison in Cebu, but was assassinated five days later in Carcar, on April 8, 1898.
The Revolution came to the Province late in 1898, with General Diego de la Viña leading the march from Vallehermoso to liberate Dumaguete. By the time they arrived on November 24, however, the Spanish forces had abandoned the capital. The Revolution in the Province transpired without bloodshed.
The Provisional Government of Negros Oriental was established on November 25, 1898. Don Demetrio Larena was elected President. On May 27, 1899, the Battalion of First California Volunteers Regiment established American presence in Dumaguete. On July 22, 1899, General Order No 30 created a military-civil government under an American military governor and elected native civil and advisory council. On May 1, 1901 a civil government was established with Don Demetrio Larena as Governor.
On August 28, 1901, Dr David S Hibbard established Silliman Institute in Dumaguete. Three years later, on October 29, 1904, seven St Paul de Chartres nuns founded St Paul’s Academy in Dumaguete, the congregation’s first institution in the Philippines.
In 1918, the Compania General de Tabacos de Filpinas SA (Tabacalera), chose Negros Oriental as the site of its first sugar mill in the Philippines – the Central Azucarera de Bais. In 1941, Compania de Cellulosa de Filipinas Inc set up in Bais the first integrated factory in the world using bagasse as raw material in the manufacture of paper.
Japanese occupation of the Province began on May 26, 1942. Hostilities ended on August 6, 1945.
On April 5, 1955, Pope Pius XII created the Diocese of Dumaguete comprising Negros Oriental Province, Siquijor sub-province, and the Negros Occidental towns of San Carlos, Calatrava, Toboso and Escalante.
On September 17, 1971, Siquijor was made a province independent of Negros Oriental.
In the 70s, when the Philippine islands were clustered into political regions, Negros Occidental became part of Region VI, or Western Visayas; while Negros Oriental was assigned to Region VII, or Central Visayas, with Cebu as its regional center. Negros thus became the only Visayan Island to be divided.
NEGROS ORIENTAL has five (5) component cities: CANLAON, BAIS, BAYAWAN, TANJAY, and the capital, DUMAGUETE. Along a continuous coastline of about 300 kms is a string of 17 coastal towns: BACONG, DAUIN, ZAMBOANGUITA, SIATON, SANTA CATALINA and BASAY to the south of the capital; SIBULAN, SAN JOSE, AMLAN, MANJUYOD, BINDOY, AYUNGON, TAYASAN, JIMALALUD, LA LIBERTAD, GUIHULNGAN and VALLEHERMOSO to the north. There are three interior towns: VALENCIA, PAMPLONA and MABINAY.
The mid-year census posted Negros Oriental’s population at 1,126,061.
Daily flights of less than an hour from Manila transports you to this Province of diverse natural delights. The rural landscape of Negros Oriental, backboned by the massive Cuernos de Negros, is deceptively commonplace. Explorations uncover an abundance of misty lakes and meandering rivers, rushing cascades and awesome caverns of incredible beauty. A cruise of Bais Bay is rewarded by sightings of dolphins and pygmy sperm whales. Apo Island of Dauin town is known as one of the best divesites in the region. The imposing Canlaon Volcano gushes numerous falls. The Province is outside the typhoon belt. Weather is generally fair all year round. Despite its abundant assets, Negros Oriental is only just emerging as an important ecotourism destination in Central Visayas
Negros Island was formally divided into two provinces in 1890. Negros Oriental, on the southeastern coast, is 5,402.30 sq kms, the largest land area of the Region VII provinces. There are five component cities and 20 municipalities, each with its own unique natural charms, historic sites, colorful rites and festivals, and a variety of crafts and delicacies.
The Province is predominantly agricultural. English is widely spoken. Visitor facilities range from upscale to budget-friendly. For boundless nature-based tour and leisure options, Negros Oriental has it all.
|AgricultureCrops and CerealsTotal land area in the province devoted to agriculture consists of 302,729 hectares, 167,515 hectares of which are planted to major crops, the rest are utilized for the cultivation of indusrial and minor crops.Irrigated fields contributed the bulk of the palay production with a 2.5 cropping per year which reached 48,622 metric tons or 82.43 per cent of the total production while the remaining 17.57 per cent or 10,362 metric tons were derived from lowland and upland rain fed areas. In 2001, an estimated basic area of 16,255 hectares was under irrigation where productivity was calculated at 2.99 metric tons per hectare. The yield from irrigated rice lands was considerably higher than those obtained from the less productive rain fed areas, which averaged 2.09 metric tons per hectare.The province continues to import rice and corn from its neighboring provinces in the Visayas and Northern Mindanao. Palay production in 2001 reached 58,984 metric tons. This volume was harvested from an area of 21,210 hectares resulting in an average yield of 2.78 metric tons per hectare, equivalent to 55.6 cavans of 50-kilogram content.Coconut plantations in the province have an aggregate land area of 143,394 hectares, constituting about 10 per cent of the total land area with Bayawan City lording over all the cities and municipalities.
Cocal area has increased through the years, from an estimated area of 42,400 hectares in 1990 to 80,518 hectares in 1995. The average annual number of nuts produced per tree suffered a decline, from 46 nuts in 1990 to 34 nuts in 1995, and 20 nuts in the year 2000. Consequently, copra production dropped to 18,444 metric tons in 2001 from 54,810 metric tons in 1990. The number of fruit-bearing coconut trees also dramatically decreased from 7,282,217 in 1995 to 4,459,265 in the year 2000.
Mango is the major fruit commodity in Negros Oriental. It remains a high priority in agricultural development due to its high export market potential. A total area of 2,706.50 hectares is planted to mango. Carabao mango is the most abundant variety in the province with Bindoy having the highest bearing tree population of 10,211 trees. Manjuyod follows with 9,684 trees and San Jose, 8,125 trees.
Tanjay City has the highest number of non-bearing mango trees with 43,927; Bayawan, 32,747 trees; and, Pamplona, 14,286 trees. Because of the high export demand in the world market, local farmers were enthusiastic in expanding their mango plantations. Table 34.0 shows the area planted to carabao mango variety by municipality and city.
Agricultural Extension Services
Establishment of Barangay Agricultural Development Centers (BADC) in the hinterland areas gained support of some city and municipal chief executives and legislators in the province. BADCs serve as venues for technology transfer, trainings, seminars and meetings of farmers in the farflung areas. A total of 52 BADCs are put up in at least 21 municipalities and cities.
Fish production in Negros Oriental in 2002 was 17,179 metric tons 4,983 metric tons of which were from commercial fishing; 9,513 metric tons were from municipal fishing; and 2,683 metric tons were aquaculture. Shown below is a table presenting that the provinmce’s production is only 8.5 per cent of the total fishery production of the Central Visayas region. These figures are slightly higher that the volume of production from 1999 until 2001. Municipal fishing consistently had the highest volume, followed by commercial fishing.
To improve fish production, 32 marine protected areas for bio-diversity were established in 20 municipalities in Negros Oriental by the local Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and othe line agencies. Table 37.0 shows the marine protected.
Fish Sufficiency Level
In 2002, fish production in Negros Oriental was 17,179 metric tons, and fish consumption was 39,693 metric tons. Computing production over consumption, fish sufficiency level is only 43 per cent, showing a deficit of 22,2514 metric tons. Fish deficiency in Negros Oriental is the highest in the Central Visayas region.
At least 148 individuals are operating fishponds in Negros Oriental, the biggfest of which is 92.8800 hectares of the Sycip Plantation in Tamisu, Bais City. Following is a table showing the fishpond operators with their respective areas developed and location.
Tanjay City has the most number of fishpond operators consisting of 130 persons who own/manage 936.2 hectares of fishpond area. The combined fishpond areas of Bais and Tanjay cities account for nearly 68 per cent of existing fishponds in Negros Oriental.
The schools division of Oriental Negros used to have 29 school districts, each city and municipality being a school district, except Dumaguete City, it being another schools division. However, in school-year 2001-2002, the Department of Education made the cities of Bais, Bayawan and Tanjay separate interim divisions, leaving 26 school districts under the Negros Oriental schools division with 511 schools. Shown below are the school districts under the Division of Negros Oriental.
The First Congressional District has the highest number of schools with 257, followed by the Third Congressioal District with 149 schools and the Second Congressional District with 105 schools.
Majority of the 227,160 household population in Negros Oriental occupy housing units, either owned or rented. The types of housing units are single house, duplex, multi-unit residential, and commercial/ industrial/ agricultural/ or institutional living quarters. The most common type of house being occupied is single, having 217,379 occupants. Duplex type of building has 1,744 occupants, and 1,000 households occupy multi-unit residential type. The average number of occupants per housing unit is five.
Health and Nutrition
Health facilities in the province consist of three tertiary hospitals, seven secondary hospitals, six community primary hospitals, a diagnostic center and a dialysis center. Tertiary hospitals include the 250-bed capacity provincial hospital, which is actually one of the district hospitals covering the towns of Dauin, Valencia, Sibulan, San Jose, Amlan and Dumaguete City. The other two tertiary hospitals are privately-owned.
The entire workforce of the health sector of the provincial government consists of 36 physicians, 30 medical technologists, 68 nurses, 538 rural health midwives, nine dentists and 58 rural sanitary inspectors. Thirty-seven per cent of these are connected with the health centers of the different municipalities.
Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality
The leading causes of morbidity in 2003 were Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, pneumonia, influenza, diarrhea, bronchitis, cardio-vascualr disease, wounds, skin diseases, pulmonary tubercolusis, measles, parasitism, dengue fefer and urinary tract infection.
The ten leading causes of mortality in the same year were cardio-vascular disease, pneumonia, cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, accident, sepsis, all kinds of wounds, renal diseases, bleeding peptic ulcer and septicemia.
Infant Mortality Rate by Cause
Pneumonia has been the first leading cause of infant death since 1995 until 2003. This was followed by prematurity, congenital anomaly, sepsis neonatorum, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, asphycia, age, septicemia and acute respiratory infection.
Dumaguete City has become the site of various national and regional games due to the availability of sports facilities. The Provincial Government of Negros Oriental has continued to improve its existing sports facilities, one of which is the Congressman Lamberto L. Macias Sports Center, the first of its kind built in the province which can accommodate 5,000 people at one time. With this, some basketball games of the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA), and national, regional, and provincial volleyball games are held here. Some socio-cultural activities, graduation ceremonies, conventions, religious gatherings, among others, are also held in this facility.
Also available is the Lorenzo G. Teves Memorial Aqua Center, located beside the Negros Oriental Perdices Coliseum in Dumaguete City. Regional and national swimming competitions are held in this aqua pool.
Other sports or recreation facilities available in the province are presented in the following table.
Other Recreational Facilities
Dumaguete City has three (3) movie houses. Each municipality and city has its own municipal or city park/plaza as well as cockpit. However, the big parks are found in Dumaguete City. Cockfighting, billiards and Jai-alai are some of the amusement activities that people in the province turn to as diversions.
The services rendered under social welfare are emergency assistance, disaster relief and rehabilitation, program for rebel returnees, population and development services, special social services for senior citizens, persons with disabilities and children. The Department of Social Welfare and Development- retained social workers attend to community-based services such as protective services for children, youth and women as well as self-employment assistance.
In 2003, PSWDO has generated a total funding of P38,566,670.00 from various sources intended for program and project implementation. The office is manned by a 14-provincial paid staff, seven (7) national retained social workers, one (1) of whom is under a Memorandum of Agreement. A total of 58 social welfare officers and workers are employed in the different Municipal Social Welfare and Development Offices (MSWDOs) province-wide.
A total of 145 employees are connected with the different City Social Welfare and Development Offices for the whole province with Dumaguete City having the most number of employees. Bacong, Pamplona, Siaton and Sta. Catalina are among the municipalities with the most number of workers. In short, Negros Oriental has a grand total of 224 social welfare officers/workers.
Social welfare services cater to all walks of life such as disaster victims, rebel returnees, adolescents, out-of-school youths, students, senior citizens, persons with disabilities, abused children and women and the like.
Children’s Welfare and Protection
Cases of abandoned and neglected children have so far been the ones recorded and reported to social welfare and development offices. A child is neglected when the parents or guardians do not have time to provide care, comfort, love, attention and more so, are not able to provide for the basic needs of the child. It is so alarming to note that 19 female children and 22 male children were reported to have been neglected by parents in a very young age between 6-14 years.
Most of the municipalities in the province do not have the minimum vehicle requirement of one (1) patrol car and two (2) motorcycles, rendering inefficiency of policemen in responding to emergency calls for police assistance.
The Negros Oriental Provnical Police Office has 747 assorted long firearms, 796 handguns, five (5) M60 Light Machine-guns; and 30 LMG, all issued to the Provincial Police Mobile Group. It is equipped with 59 assorted communication equipment such as, one URC 187, one Phaser II, one V-100, 11 ICOM Base Radios, and 44 ICOM Handheld Radios.
A total of 199 personnel manned the Bureau of Fire Protection province-wide. To temporarily augment the lack of manpower for fire protection services, the local office of the Provincial Fire Marshall organized and trained the Barangay Volunteer Fire Brigade (BVFB) to be on hand during fire and other disaster emergencies in places where there are no fire fighting stations. Recent fire incidents were recorded to be seven, all of which were suspected to be arson. However, 96 cases of accidental fire incidents were recorded, 14 of which were of unknown motives.
Fire Trucks and Other Equipment
A total of 17 fire trucks are available for use by the different fire stations in the province with Dumaguete City having at least five units; Bais and Bayawan cities having two units each; and, the cities of Canlaon and Tanjay having one unit each. Of the 20 municipalities in the province, only six municipalities have fire stations having one truck each, namely: Guihulngan, Mabinay, San Jose, Siaton, Sta. Catalina and Valencia. Each of these is under the supervision and control of the Bureau of Fire Protection. Municipalities of Sibulan and Ayungon acquired/owned one unit fire truck each, but both local government units prefer to handle and provide their own manpower for and maintenance to the units.
Municipalities that are equipped with portable fire pump units are Basay, Zamboanguita, Dauin, Bacong, Sibulan, Amlan, Pamplona, Bindoy, Ayungon, Tayasan and Jimalalud.
Fire Prevention Activities
Personnel of the Office of the Fire Marshall undergo mandatory training courses to enhance the capability of fire fighting personnel in the discharge of their duties. These courses include Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC), Fire Arson Investigation and Inspection Course (FAIIC), Public Safety Officer’s Candidate Course (PSOCC), Public Safety Officer’s Basic Course (PSOBC), Public Safety Officer’s Advanced Course (PSOAC) and Public Safety Officer’s Senior Executive Course (PSOSEC).
Road surface analysis in the province shows that there is a total of 909.768 kilometers of national and provincial roads, 120.42 kilometers of which are concrete-paved, 308.885 kilometers or 33.95 per cent are asphalt-paved, 352.596 kilometers or 38.76 per cent are gravel roads and 127.867 kilometers or 14.05 per cent are earth roads.
The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) has put up engineering district office in each congressional district. As of May 2003, the three engineering districts in the province recorded a combined total of 375.86 kilometers of national roads. Of this total length, 99.733 kilometers or 26.53 per cent are concrete paved, 259.021 kilometers or 69.91 per cent are asphalt paved, and 17.106 kilometers or 4.55 per cent are gravel roads.
The DPWH Negros Oriental First Engineering District Office is based in Guihulngan and covers the City of Canlaon and the municipalities of Manjuyod, Bindoy, Ayungon, Tayasan, Jimalalud, La Libertad, Guihulngan and Vallehermoso. This district has a total of 124.592 kilometers of roads, 55.278 kilometers (44.37 per cent) of these are concrete paved, 68.713 kilometers (55.15 per cent) asphalt paved, and 0.601 kilometers (0.48 per cent) are gravel roads.
The DPWH Negros Oriental Second Engineering District Office, which holds office in Dumaguete City, covers the cities of Dumaguete, Tanjay and Bais and the municipalities of Sibulan, San Jose, Amlan, and Mabinay. It has for its record a total of 110.027 kilometers of road, 4.384 kilometers (3.98 per cent) of which are concrete paved, 105.643 kilometers (96.02 per cent) asphalt-paved. There are no gravel roads in this district.
The DPWH Negros Oriental Third Engineering District Office holds office in the municipality of Siaton and covers the City of Bayawan and the municipalities of Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboangita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina, and Basay. Its coverage area includes 144.495 kilometers of roads, 41.70 kilometers (28.86 per cent) of these are concrete paved, 86.21 kilometers (59.66 per cent) asphalt paved, and 16.585 kilometers (11.48 per cent) are gravel roads.
The Provincial Engineer’s Office in Negros Oriental has constructed/improved a total provincial road length of 494.578 kilometers, 70.641 kilometers (14.28 per cent) of which are concrete-paved, 43.864 kilometers (8.87 per cent) are asphalt-paved, 332.628 kilometers (65.23 per cent) are gravel roads, and 57.445 kilometers (11.62 per cent) are earth roads.
There are 140 national bridges in Negros Oriental with a total length of 4,782 linear meters, 139 of which are permanent bridges and one is a temporary bridge. A few of these bridges have already undergone repairs and upgrading, especially the bridge approaches.
There are 17 provincial farm-to-market bridges with an aggregate length of 434.68 linear meters, 189.91 linear meters of which are temporary or made of timber; 25.14 linear meters are concrete girder bridges; and 219.63 linear meters are reinforced concrete deck girder.
TheDumaguete City airport is the onlymajor airport in Negros Oriental serving daily domestic flights to and from Manila with two airline companies (Air Philippines and Cebu Pacific). Its facilities are for all weather conditions. The province has also two private airports, one located in Tolong, Sta. Catalina and the other in the Pamplona Estate in Pamplona. Another private airport is soon to be constructed in Bayawan City.
Land Transportation Utilities
Land transport vehicles are categorized into three classes. These are private vehicles, for hire and government vehicles. Private vehicles include Light (cars), medium, heavy, Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV), Utility Vehicle (UV), Truck (T), Truck Bus (TB), Motorcycle (MC) and Trailer (TRL), categorized into Trailer Medium (TRM) and Trailer Heavy (TRH). For hire vehicles include Taxi, Utility Vehicle (UV) , Truck, Truck- Bus-(TB), Motorcycle for Hire (MCH), and Trailer (TRL). Government vehicles include Light (L), Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV), Utility Vehicle (UV), Truck (T), Truck Bus (TB), and Motorcycle (MC).
Under private category, Motorcycle (MC) consistently registered the highest number of units since 2002 and 2004, followed by motorcycle for hire.
The Philippine Ports Authority’s Port Management Office (PMO-Dumaguete) has assumed jurisdiction over all government and private ports in the province since 2002. The government ports handle both passenger and cargo traffic while the private ports are generally utilized for the shipment of cargoes. The Dumaguete seaport is a major link to Mindanao traffic and is part of the “Strong Republic Nautical Highway” route.
The Guihulngan Port caters mainly to small vessels ferrying passengers between Guihulngan and Tangil, Dumanjug, Cebu. Port facilities include an L-type 6-meter wide by 55-meter long reinforced concrete finger pier, and a berthing area of 99 meters with six (6) cleats mooring fixtures. Two shipping lines also operate in this port, the Rodriguez Shipping and Pages Shipping. The recorded operational statistics for this port is shown on the following page.
Based on the PPA operational statistics for 1999, the Port of Dumaguete had the most number of shipcalls made by domestic and inter-island vessels with 7,185, followed by the Port of Tandayag with 5,317, and the Port of Guihulngan with 1,620. These shipcalls resulted in an estimated 324,241 metric tons of cargo for the Port of Dumaguete. The Ports of Tandayag and Guihulngan had 132,413 and 830 metric tons of cargoes respectively.
A total of 1,230,000 passengers embarked/disembarked at the Port of Dumaguete in the year 1999. Of this number, about 625,917 or 50.9 percent were outbound passengers. The Ports of Tandayag had 332,929 and 176,003 embarking/disembarking passengers at the port of Guihulngan in the same year. Shown below is the PPA traffic report from 1996 to the year 2002.
Dumaguete City and five municipalities in the province have high access to potable water. Forty per cent of the total households are served with Level I water systems, 23.75 per cent with Level II system and 24.03 per cent with Level III system. Others get water from doubtful sources.
Dumaguete has the highest percentage of households with potable water at 100 per cent, followed by Bacong with 98.9 per cent, Amlan with 98.3 per cent, San Jose with 96.1 per cent, and Sibulan and Tanjay both with 95.3 per cent. The municipality with the lowest percentage of households with access to potable water is Jimalalud with 45.1 per cent.
The housedhold served with water supply presents the status of water supply projects as reported by the Provincial Waterworks Task Force in December 2003.
As of December 2002, NIA has constructed and made operational a total of 36 Communal Irrigation Systems (CIS) with a total service area of 5,611 hectares. Nine are located in the First Congressional District with a service area of 1,375 hectares; eight in the Second Congressional District with a service area of 1,290 hectares; and 19 in the Third Congressional District with a service area of 2,946 hectares. Other government agencies have also constructed 44 CIS with a total service area of 1,851 hectares, 16 of which are in the First Congressional District with a service area of 1,155 hectares, seven in the Second Congressional District with a service area of 211 hectares, and 21 CIS in the Third Congressional District with a service area of 484 hectares. The private sector also constructed 11 CIS with a total service area of 310 hectares.
Telecommunication facilities operating in the province include telephone system, cable television stations, telegraph stations, and telex station exchange. Each municipality and city has postal station that caters to the populace far and near the town or city proper. Private telephone companies are maintaining modern telephone equipment, giving access to all major cities in 116 countries in the world on a 24-hour basis through IDD and NDD.
Although some cities and municipalities have direct contact through telephones, cellular phones and single-side band radio sets, majority of these cities and municipalities still need adequate communication lines.
There are 47 Internet Cafés that operate in Negros Oriental. Thirty of these are in Dumaguete City. The rest can be found in the cities of Bais, Tanjay and Bayawan and the municipalities of Sibulan and Bacong .
Negros Oriental’s primary source of power is the geothermal energy harnessed from the geothermal fields in Palinpinon, Valencia. There are two power plants generating geothermal energy which has a combined capacity of 192.5 mega watts.
Power rates in Negros Oriental is observed to be higher than those in the neighboring provinces notwithstanding the fact that it is the source of geothermal power interconnection that supply the Cebu-Panay-Leyte-Negros grid . A larger portion of the availablable power is consumed for household or domestic use.
Power rates charged by electric cooperatives to consumers are grouped according to type. Consumers are categorized as residential, small industries, large industries, irrigation system, public buildings, etc. Following is the presentation of the rates as approved by the Energy Regulatory Board.
Drainage and Flood Control System
The province has adequate rivers, streams, creeks, canals and channels that form the drainage network. These channels drain towards the eastern, southern, and western coastal regions before finally emptying their load into the sea.
Source: negor.gov.ph and touroriental.com (photo)